The following peer-reviewed publications published by APIM Therapeutics’s CSO and NTNU Professor, Marit Otterlei, provide more info on the PCNA, the APIM-motif and the mechanism of action of ATX-101 in cancer.

  1. Søgaard CK et al, 2018b. “Two hits - one stone”; increased efficacy of cisplatin-based therapies by targeting PCNA’s role in both DNA repair and cellular signaling. Oncotarget, 2018, Vol. 9, (No. 65), pp: 32448-32465

    This publication presents data obtained with ATX-101/cisplatin combinations in in vitro and in vivo models of Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (MIBC). Moreover, it presents results from gene expression, proteome/kinome and metabolome studies in MIBC cell lines.

  2. Olaisen C et al, The role of PCNA as a scaffold protein in cellular signaling is functionally conserved between yeast and humans. FEBS Open Bio. 2018 May 31;8(7):1135-1145

    This publication shows that interactions of APIM‐containing signaling proteins and PCNA during the DNA damage response are evolutionary conserved between yeast and mammals and that PCNA has a role in cellular signaling also in yeast.

  3. Søgaard CK et al, 2018a. APIM-peptide targeting PCNA improves the efficacy of docetaxel treatment in the TRAMP mouse model of prostate cancer. Oncotarget. 2018 Jan 27;9(14):11752-11766

    This publication shows that ATX-101 improves docetaxel treatment efficacy in prostate cancer by affecting multiple signaling and apoptotic pathways.

  4. Olaisen C et al, 2015. PCNA-interacting peptides reduce Akt phosphorylation and TLP-mediated cytokine secretion suggesting a role of PCNA in cellular signaling. Cell Signal. 2015 Jul;27(7):1478-87

    Publication showing that PCNA has a platform role in cytosol affecting cellular signaling and inflammatory responses. These effects suggest a role of PCNA in inflammatory disorders as well as cancer inflammation.

  5. Gederaas OA et al, 2014. Increased anti-cancer efficacy of intravesical mitomycin C therapy when combined with a PCNA targeting peptide. Translational Oncology, Volume 7, Issue 6, 812–823, Dec. 2014

    Publication describing validation and in vivo proof-of-efficacy results of ATX-101 in bladder cancer cells and in two orthotopic rat bladder models in combination with Mitomycin-C and bleomycin.

  6. Baglo Y et al, 2014. Enhanced efficacy of bleomycin in bladder cancer cells by photochemical internalization. Biomed Res Int. 2014, 2014:921296

    Publication addressing the ability of ATX-101 to enhance the action of bleomycin in bladder cancer cell lines.

  7. Müller R et al, 2013. Targeting proliferating cell nuclear antigen and its protein interactions induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 31;8(7)

    Publication describing ATX-101, its capacity to target PCNA and key in vitro and mechanism of action results in combination with several chemotherapeutic treatments. Describes validation of ATX-101 in multiple myeloma ex vivo (patient cancer cells) and in vivo (mouse myeloma xenografts).

  8. Gilljam KM et al, 2012. Nucleotide excision repair is associated with the replisome and its efficiency depends on a direct interaction between XPA and PCNA. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49199

    Publication showing that XPA, a protein in the NER pathway, bears a functional APIM; XPA’s function in UV induced damage is dependent on an intact APIM sequence.

  9. Gilljam KM et al, 2009. Identification of a novel, widespread, and functionally important PCNA-binding motif.  J Cell Biol, 2009, 186: pp645-654

    Pivotal NTNU publication describing APIM; reported results link APIM with the potentiation of the activity of several chemotherapeutic treatments in cancer cells.